Layoffs: Are Economic Turbulences Redefining Job Security?

In 2024, over 2,500 individuals employed in startups or technology firms lost their jobs in India, ranking the country third in terms of layoff rates after Germany (8,640) and the US (40,989). The previous year, in 2023, India witnessed 16,398 job cuts.

Syed Hassan Kazim
New Update
Layoff In India

In recent years, both the global and Indian job markets have faced significant turbulence, witnessing a surge in layoffs across various sectors. Despite the tech industry's reputation for resilience during economic downturns, recent data paints a different picture.

According to, a website tracking layoffs, a staggering 262,595 employees were laid off by 1,187 tech companies last year (2023). Moreover, in January 2024, 91 tech companies terminated 24,564 employees.

Now, let's explore the dynamics of layoffs in both India and the global landscape, analyzing crucial trends and their implications.

Global Layoff Trends:

The technology sector, a significant player in the global job market, has witnessed a surge of layoffs impacting thousands of employees worldwide. In 2024, there were 57,505 job reductions globally, with 90 percent of them concentrated in the top three countries, including India. This trend underscores the vulnerability of entities across the spectrum, from industry giants like Amazon and Google to startups, to economic uncertainties. Between 2022 and 2023, over 425,000 tech employees globally experienced job cuts, indicating a widespread downsizing phenomenon. Notable companies such as Amazon Web Services, Zoom, Okta, PayPal, and Salesforce have all announced significant layoffs, citing reasons like restructuring and market challenges.


Year Total Tech Employees Affected by Layoffs
2022 Over 425,000
2023 262,682

Tech Sector Challenges:

Tech companies are encountering a multitude of challenges that contribute to the occurrence of layoffs. Issues such as market saturation, evolving consumer preferences, and capital availability are placing significant strain on many firms. Furthermore, the persistent effects of the pandemic, including supply chain disruptions and evolving work dynamics, are exacerbating these challenges even further.

Impact on Startups:

Startups, typically seen as susceptible to economic shifts, are also experiencing the repercussions of global layoffs. Despite securing substantial funding in recent years, many startups are grappling with sustainability concerns. Instances of layoffs, such as those witnessed at companies like Byju's in India and various startups worldwide, underscore the fragility of this sector amid financial constraints.

Indian Layoff Landscape:

In 2024, over 2,500 individuals employed in startups or technology firms lost their jobs in India, ranking the country third in terms of layoff rates after Germany (8,640) and the US (40,989). The previous year, in 2023, India witnessed 16,398 job cuts. Notably, around 85% of these layoffs were concentrated in three sectors: retail, food, and education, with retail accounting for the largest share at 44%, followed by food (22%) and education (20%). Despite these figures, 2024 has shown improvement compared to the preceding year.

In 2022, India represented approximately 11% of global layoffs, a proportion that decreased to 4% by early 2023. Although India's share in global layoffs has diminished, its pace remains slower relative to the global rate. International companies view India's stable economic condition positively, leading to continued operations with fewer staff reductions. This trend is reflected in India's reduced share of global layoffs, which decreased to 9.71% in 2023.

Byju's, Swiggy, and Flipkart are among the Indian companies that have implemented layoffs, reflecting broader sectoral trends.


Year Total Layoffs in India Top Sectors Affected India's Share in Global Layoffs
2022 Approximately 11% Unknown 11%
Early 2023 16,398 Retail, Food, Education (85% of layoffs) 4%
2023 Unknown Retail (44%), Food (22%), Education (20%) 9.71%
2024 2,500 Retail, Food, Education (85% of layoffs) N/A

Factors Influencing Indian Layoffs:

Several factors contribute to the layoff scenario in India. While the country boasts a robust tech ecosystem and a skilled workforce, it grapples with economic uncertainties and regulatory hurdles. The lack of adequate funding, coupled with global market fluctuations, adds to the challenges faced by Indian companies.

The pandemic years witnessed an unprecedented surge in online services, prompting tech companies to embark on hiring sprees to meet the escalating demand. However, post-pandemic landscapes are unfolding in ways divergent from earlier expectations, necessitating swift adjustments from businesses to address present realities:

Uncertain Market Conditions: Global economic interdependence and geopolitical turmoil in various regions have created a climate of uncertainty. Tech companies, accustomed to rapid growth during the pandemic, now face the challenge of navigating unpredictable market dynamics.

Reduced Consumer Spending: As the initial frenzy of pandemic-driven purchasing subsides, there has been a decline in demand for certain products or services. Tech firms must recalibrate their strategies to align with shifting consumer behaviors and preferences.

Role Redundancies: The widespread adoption of remote and hybrid work models has led to redundancies in certain roles. With teams operating in dispersed settings, companies are reevaluating their workforce structures and streamlining operations to adapt to the new work environment.

Comparing layoff scenarios in India and globally highlights the interconnectedness of the tech industry. Economic forces, technological advancements, and geopolitical factors collectively influence employment dynamics. Amid these complexities, companies must prioritize mitigating the human impact of layoffs while promoting innovation and resilience in the workforce. In times of uncertainty, proactive measures like upskilling initiatives and diversification strategies are crucial for navigating challenges and creating a sustainable future for all stakeholders.