Chandrayaan-3 Nears Destination: Awaiting the Nail-biting Landing

This eagerly anticipated moment is scheduled for Wednesday at 6:04 pm, a culmination of meticulous planning and unwavering dedication by the ISRO.

Srajan Girdonia
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Chandrayaan 3 thumb.jpg

India's pride, the Chandrayaan-3 lander, is poised to make a historic touchdown on the lunar surface after an intense journey of 40 days. This eagerly anticipated moment is scheduled for Wednesday at 6:04 pm, a culmination of meticulous planning and unwavering dedication by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). With 140 crore Indians holding their collective breath, the Chandrayaan-3 mission marks a crucial step in India's space exploration endeavours.

Scientific Vigilance in the Countdown

As the landing clock ticks down, ISRO's team of over 50 scientists at the Mission Operation Complex (MOX) within the Telemetry and Command Center (ISTRAC) in Bengaluru remain deeply engrossed. Their focus is on continuously scrutinizing the vast influx of data streaming in from Chandrayaan-3's sensors and systems. In these critical hours leading up to the landing, the team meticulously analyzes the information to send precise commands and inputs to the lander, ensuring the highest likelihood of a successful landing.

A Rollercoaster of Emotions at ISTRAC

Within the ISTRAC campus, emotions run high, with an eclectic mix of pride, excitement, confidence, restlessness, and tension palpable in the air. Scientists communicate in hushed tones, a testament to the gravity of the moment. 

The central control room boasts a massive screen that displays a detailed graphical representation of the lander's descent trajectory, replete with parameters data and animations of its critical phases. The visualization provides a lifelike relay of every action the lander and rover undertake, rendering an almost cinematic experience of this historic journey.

Global Collaborations for Real-time Validation

ISRO's dedication to precision is further evident in its collaboration with international space agencies. The European Space Agency's Deep Space Network stations in Germany and Australia, alongside NASA's Deep Space Network, provide real-time data validation from across the globe. This collective effort underlines the global significance of Chandrayaan-3's mission and showcases the spirit of international collaboration in space exploration.

The Nail-biting Moments of Descent

The final 19 minutes of Chandrayaan-3's journey promise to be nothing short of breathtaking. The lander, hurtling through space at a startling speed of 6,048 km/h, is set to execute a flawless landing with intricately designed manoeuvres. A stark contrast emerges as its velocity drops to under 10 km/h upon lunar touch. Importantly, the landing site's selection is entrusted to the lander's own computational intelligence, underlining the autonomy and sophistication of ISRO's technology.

Decoding the Phases of Descent

Chandrayaan-3's descent can be dissected into several distinct phases, each crucial for a safe touchdown:

1. Deorbiting and Descent Initiation: From an altitude of 30 km, the lander will initiate the deorbiting process, gradually decreasing its speed as it descends towards the Moon.

2. Attitude Hold Phase: Within 10 seconds, the Vikram Lander will traverse from 7.42 km to 3.48 km above the lunar surface, ultimately positioning itself at a height of 6.8 km from the Moon's terrain.

3. Fine Breaking Phase: As the lander moves forward, it will cover 28.52 km, reaching an altitude of merely 800 meters. Sensors will scrutinize the landing site for potential hazards, ensuring a smooth touchdown with a meticulous 150-meter buffer to avoid obstacles.

4. Terminal Descent Phase: Perhaps the most critical stage, the lander will navigate a complex reduction in speed and orientation. With a 90-degree rotation and all four legs directed towards the lunar surface, the lander will execute a controlled freefall.

A Mission to Learn From

Chandrayaan-2's challenges and Chandrayaan-3's meticulously calculated approach underscore ISRO's unyielding commitment to progress. This endeavour isn't solely about landing; it's about learning, innovating, and pushing the boundaries of human knowledge. As the countdown approaches zero and the world watches, India holds its breath in anticipation of a new chapter in space exploration.